Sunday, 13 May 2012

Automatically undecorate maximised windows in GNOME Shell

One feature I really liked about the Ubuntu Netbook Remix (while it lasted) was how whenever you maximised a window, it removed the title bar. The program that did this was called Maximus.

This was really handy for saving a bit of vertical screen real estate, especially when you had a small 10" screen. Yes, it became harder to unmaximise a window/drag it around/resize it, but on a 10" screen you don't do that often anyway as it's really not big enough to bother with having multiple windows visible at once.

Anyhow, I wanted this ability in GNOME shell (undecorate maximised windows), so I wrote an extension to do this.

Maximus GNOME shell extension undecorates maximised windows Without Maximus: title bar consumes vertical space.

Before I give the link, I'll mention that you don't actually need an extension to get this behaviour; this blog post gives two ways to do it:

  1. Install Maximus: if you're lucky or have Ubuntu, you can just sudo apt-get install maximus. This will install the original Maximus program for you and then you're done. However if you have Fedora, Maximus is not in the package repositories. In that case you could try to download the source and build/install it yourself. This isn't as easy as simply installing a program or extension though.
  2. Edit your window theme: you can edit the theme GNOME-shell uses to decorate your windows to artificially remove the title bar from maximised windows. See Method 2 in this blog post for how. This is nice and easy, but you have to do it every time you change your window theme.

I'd recommend installing Maximus from your package manager if you have it (i.e. Ubuntu). Otherwise, edit your window theme (knowing that it could get written over every time you change your theme), or try my Maximus GNOME shell extension (from

The Maximus GNOME shell extension is just an extension that emulates the behaviour of the original Maximus program. All it does is undecorate windows that are maximised.

The homepage/repository/instructions are here. For a one-click install just visit (or you can also download the zip file and use gnome-tweak-tool to install it ('Shell Extensions' > 'Install Extension' > select .zip file). Make sure you additionally enable it.)

Enjoy & let me know of any bugs :)

For developers: How it's done

For those who are interested, this is how I managed to get the windows undecorated.

Recall that in GNOME-shell, window objects are Meta.Windows (using the Mutter = Metacity + Clutter bindings). There are four ways I tried to undecorate/redecorate a window:

  • use the Mutter interface: try modifying the window.decorated property of a Meta.Window.
  • use the Gtk interface: try using window.set_hide_titlebar_when_maximised() or window.set_decorated(). on a Gtk.Window.
  • use the Gdk interface: try using window.set_decorations() on a Gdk.Window.
  • make an external call to xprop to set the window manager hints saying to undecorate the window.

Mutter: window.decorated = false

It would be ideal to undecorate using the Mutter bindings as GNOME-shell treats all windows as Meta.Windows anyway.

There is a window.decorated property for Meta.Windows but it's treated as read-only (as of GNOME 3.4.1); setting it to true or false has no effect. There is no way to set the window's decorations from the current (GNOME 3.4.1) Mutter gobject introspection. Not surprising; the Mutter API can't do much at the moment.

Gtk: window.set_hide_titlebar_when_maximised

Now assume that we could convert a Meta.Window into a Gtk.Window. Then we'd be able to use the function gtk_window_set_hide_titlebar_when_maximised() to get the behaviour we wanted, or if that didn't work, gtk_window_set_decorated().

However I couldn't find a way to make a GTK window from a Meta.Window, and in fact I'm not sure if it's possible/GTK works like that.

Gdk: window.set_decorations

Well, why not assume we could convert a Meta.Window into a Gdk.Window. Then we could use the function gdk_window_set_decorations(0) to remove decorations from a window.

How to create a Gdk.Window from a Meta.Window from the gobject introspection bindings? The best I could find was a function gdk_x11_window_foreign_new_for_display, which will create a Gdk.Window given the window's X ID. In the GNOME javascript bindings:

const Gdk =;
const GdkX11 =;

let window = GdkX11.X11Window.foreign_new_for_display( Gdk.Display.get_default(), WINDOW_XID );
// remove decorations
// add back decorations

Assuming you can find the window's X ID (for example with xwininfo), this works!

However, this is another unfortunate caveat; when you call this code from within the GNOME-shell process (i.e. from a GNOME shell extension), the window gets killed! If you run the exact same code using the gjs binary, or you write the exact same code in Python with the Python bindings, it works!.

After a bit of asking around, it turns out that using the above code simply won't work as long as it's run directly from a gnome shell extension; I have to make sure that the code that undecorates the window happens from an external process. This means making an external call (for example, gjs undecorate_window.js) from my code.

Then I'll need to somehow pass the window's X ID into the script from the extension to make sure it undecorates the right window.

So yes, this option is viable, but given that I have to make an external call anyway I'd rather not have to load up the various libraries in the external script each time a window is maximised.


xprop is a command-line utility for examining/setting the X properties of a window.

Looking through the set_decorations code in GDK and the C source for Maximus, to undecorate a window one sets the _MOTIF_WM_HINTS property on the window. In the hints one specifies that the window should be undecorated. When the window manager looks at these hints it then attempts to undecorate the window according to the hints.

Translating this into using xprop to set the hints, one uses the following command (credit to this post that got me started):

xprop -id [window_XID] -f _MOTIF_WM_HINTS 32c -set _MOTIF_WM_HINTS "0x2, 0x0, 0x0, 0x0, 0x0"

To explain:

  • -id [window_XID]: this tells xprop which window we wish to modify the hints of.
  • -f _MOTIF_WM_HINTS 32c: this specifies the format of the _MOTIF_WM_HINTS property, each field being a 32bit unsigned integer.
  • -set _MOTIF_WM_HINTS 0x2, 0x0, 0x0, 0x0, 0x0: says we wish to set the value of _MOTIF_WM_HINTS to 0x2, 0x0, 0x0, 0x0, 0x0.

A quick explanation of what all the numbers in _MOTIF_WM_HINTS mean (see MwmUtil.h from the OpenMotif source for the documentation, or there is some rudimentary online documentation here).

The hints structure has 5 fields, and (in order) they are:

  • what fields we're specifying with the hints: the window functions, decorations, input mode and/or status.
  • the hints for the window functions. That is, which buttons to display on the window's title bar: maximise, minimise, close, ...
  • the decorations to be drawn on the window: title bar, border, all decorations, no decorations, ...
  • the input mode of the window: modeless (can't click on it), application modal, sytem modal, ...
  • the status of the window: whether it's a tearoff window or not.

So in the above, 0x2, 0x0, 0x0, 0x0, 0x0 says that:

  • we want to specify the decorations of the window (0x2); ignore all the other fields
  • we want there to be no decorations on the window (the third number is 0x0).

If we wanted to decorate the window we'd set the window hints to 0x2, 0x0, 0x1, 0x0, 0x0.


Out of all of the above, only xprop and the GDK version were viable. Since I have to make an external call to undecorate the window anyway, I'd rather have my external call be xprop -id ... than gjs undecorate_window.js because in the latter gjs has to load all the relevant modules to execute the code, whereas the former is a simple command-line call that does the undecorating directly.

So the only question left is how to get the X ID of a window in order to pass it in to xprop (we'd have the same problem with Gdk too).

Getting the X ID of a window

There is currently (GNOME 3.4.1) no official way to get the X ID from a Meta.Window. If I listen to maximise events, I get a Meta.Window specifying the window that was maximised. There is no method in the API to extract this window's X ID. (aaargh!)

So how can I find the Meta.Window's X ID? I could try convert it into a Wnck window which has a get_xid method, but there's no way to do this directly other than looping through a list of Wnck windows and (say) comparing titles to determine whether the Wnck window is the same as the Meta.Window. This is prone to error - what happens when you have multiple windows with the same title? How will you work out which Wnck window is your window?

After a bit of digging around in the source of Mutter, I found two (somewhat hacky) ways to grab a Meta.Window's X ID.

Method 1: Using the window's description

It turns out that the window.get_description() of a Meta.Window consists of its X ID followed by its name (truncated to 10 characters) in brackets. For example, 0x26005b (Google Chr).

So, method 1 is to extract the X ID from the description of the window. However, it isn't guaranteed that the window's description will have the X ID in it in future releases of GNOME/Mutter; it's just lucky that in 3.2 to 3.4 this is what the description is set to.

Method 2: Using the window frame's X ID

If one has the actor for a Meta.Window, then the property actor['x-window'] is the X ID of the window's frame.

By the frame of the window, I mean that every window has a frame created for it by the window manager, actor['x-window'] is the X ID for that frame.

However, to perform undecoration/decoration of windows, one must use the X ID for the client window, being the window that the frame contains.

The client window is actually the child of the frame window. By using xwininfo -children -id [frame_XID] we can get a list of all the X IDs for the frame window's children, namely the one client window.

So method 2 is to make an external call to xwininfo and parse the output the extract the child's X ID. Again, it is not guaranteed that actor['x-window'] will still be there in future releases of GNOME.

Failing that

If the above two methods fail to locate a window's X ID we can use its title as a last resort. This is because xprop -id [window's XID] can be replaced with xprop -name [window's title] to identify the window in question. However if you have multiple windows of the same title, you aren't guaranteed that xprop will identify the particular window you're after.

Putting it all together.

Putting it all together, this is what happens:

  1. Create a function onMaximise that fires whenever a window is maximised. One of its arguments is the window (that was maximised)'s actor.
  2. Get the window's X ID, first by trying to parse the window's description and failing that by calling xwininfo on actor['x-window'] to get the child's X ID.
  3. If we found the X ID, then call xprop -id [XI D] -f _MOTIF_WM_HINTS 32c -set _MOTIF_WM_HINTS "0x2, 0x0, 0x0, 0x0, 0x0". If we didn't, then call xprop -name [window.get_title()] ....

If you find a less cludgy way to do this (i.e. doing the external system call) please let me know!

Wednesday, 2 May 2012

Adding window options to title bar in GNOME 3.2, 3.4

In GNOME you can usually right-click on the title bar of an application's window to select Minimize, Maximize, Always on Top, Always on Visible Workspace, etc.

If you use Google Chrome and are not using the system title bar and borders (the default), you'll notice it's not possible to access this menu.

Window Options GNOME Shell Extension in action

I've written a small GNOME Shell Extension that adds this drop-down list to the GNOME Shell title bar that gets drawn for the current window. See it in action in the picture.

It's called Window Options and is available for installation from

To install it, visit - one-click install.

Otherwise, download the .zip file on the Downloads page. Open gnome-tweak-tool, go to "Shell Extensions", "Install Extension" and select the .zip file.

This extension also works with the Status Title Bar extension (which shows the full window title in the top instead of just the current application's name). However, you have to make sure that Window Options is loaded after Status Title Bar, or else Status Title Bar will write over the menu.(UPDATE: It now works with Status Title Bar regardless of install order.)

To do this, just make sure that if you're using Status Title Bar, you install it before Window Options. If it's too late and you installed Window Options first, you can either uninstall and reinstall Window Options, OR just toggle Window Options on and off a couple of times (from gnome-tweak-tool) when you log in. This will cause Window Options to put its menu items in Status Title Bar's menu instead of the default panel one (that Status Title Bar removes).

You can configure which items are shown in the menu; to see how, see the Readme on Window Options' homepage (just scroll down a bit).